Chemoselective Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Amido Derivatives from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfurylamine

The acylations of furfurylamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfurylamine (HMFA) have been studied finding immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as an ideal biocatalyst. CALB was used immobilized on two different supports (Novozyme 435 and EziG-CALB), with the polymer-coated controlled porosity glass carrier material from EnginZyme being an excellent carrier to yield an active and stable enzymatic preparation for the acylation of the primary amine group. The amount of the acyl donor in the reaction was a key factor to achieve the mono- and chemoselective N-protection of HMFA with large excess of ethyl acetate leading to the formation of the N,O-diacetylated product. Thus, a series of 16 nonactivated esters were used to selectively modify the amine group of HMFA, obtaining 9 hydroxy amides under mild reaction conditions and with quantitative yields through chromatography-free transformations. The influence of substrate concentration was studied, resulting in complete conversions in all cases after 22 h (100–1000 mM). Excellent results were observed at 100 and 200 mM of HMFA, while higher concentrations led to longer reaction times and, to some extent, the formation of the diacetylated product (up to 7% after 22 h at 1 M). After this optimization, a metric analysis was performed to confirm the high sustainability of the presented process (E-factor of 1.1 excluding solvents) upon intensification of the biotransformation to 1 g at 200 mM HMFA concentration. The possibility of obtaining orthogonally protected HMFA-derived amido esters has been achieved through a clean and sequential one-pot process using EziG-CALB, which involved the use of ethyl methoxy acetate as the nonactivated ester for N-acylation and the activated vinyl acetate for O-protection.

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